Psychological Association

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Psychological Association

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2012) and/or American Psychological Association (2010). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. I need this completed by 07/26/19 at 7pm.


Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note that citations are expected for both your main post and your response posts. Note also, that, although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.

Read a your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.

Respond in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

1. Classmate (J. R-W)

Looking at today generation we must take in consideration individuals background and how their culture plays a major influence in their life. As future counselors we must be able to not be bias on our clients, social status, religion, sexuality and beliefs because in order for us to assist our client we must not make decision based on their background. Now According to Capuzzi & Stauffer stated that “Operating from a multicultural and social justice framework in career counselling also requires an understanding of oppression” (Capuzzi & Stauffer, p. 113). I think in my current role as a caseworker I deal with a diverse population. One thing I have learned in this field is so educate myself on my client’s background. This has helped me a lot because I can build a positive relationship with my clients. Look at Sue & Sue it stated that “Culturally competent practitioners engage in serving diverse patients with a conscious awareness of their own attitudes, biases and value judgments, which enable them to understand and appreciate the cultural perspectives of their diverse patients (Sue, 1998). I think by allowing us to be bias with in our clients we must be aware of the influence of multicultural counselling and social justice counseling because they were created to reduced bias in counseling and to provide constancy across many diverse backgrounds. Which it all reflects on having an open mind to be able to work successfully with a diverse population.


Capuzzi, D. & Stauffer, M. (2012). Career counseling: foundations, perspectives, and applications. New York: Routledge.

Sue, D.W., Carter, R.T., Casas, M.J., Fouad, N.A., Ivey, A.E., Jensen, M., LaFramboise, T.L., Manese, J.E., Ponterotto, J.G., & Vazquez-Nutall, E. (1998). Multicultural counseling competencies: Individual and organizational development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc .

2. Classmate (T. Rat)

Without facing the possible discriminatory or daily life experiences of another culture or race, we would fall short in fully understanding the perspectives of differing populations. Evaluating biases, and developing awareness of one’s own culture provides a solid foundation to understanding the imposed influences of society, economics, family culture, race, ethnicity and more (Laureate, 2007).

Social justice career counseling provides an opportunity for a counselor to be a competent advocate when working with clients in an unpredictable work climate, locally, nationally, and globally. The impact of the depression and world wars changed the fabric of job availability, but also the transitioning of women into the work force to meet labor needs while men were at war. Federal laws regarding discrimination, equal pay, disabilities act, and other regulations look at the often bias of diversity and affect on careers. It is important for a social justice career counseling to thoroughly understand the working climate, oppression of social/political and economic conditions, by looking outside of normal training (Ratts & Santos, 2012). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLR) reports quarterly rates of employment of labor groups (US Dpt. of Labor, 2019). A couple of categories include the marginally attached – which means available and looking for work over the last 12 months, but not counted as unemployed because they are no longer working). Or, the discouraged marginally attached group that is not currently seeking work because they believe no jobs are available for them. While these statistics are national, a career counselor could obtain rates for their local labor markets in order to fully understand what clients are facing and at the very least identify the ‘group’ their client is in and a starting point for learning from the client their experience.

Identity development helps acquire a sense and understanding of oneself within the context of cultural demands and social norms. This will help to bring about increased self-esteem, critical thinking, and insight (Brown & Lent, 2005). Group identities help with self-concept, preservation, recognition, and influence how others interact. An example is the real-life women in the book and movie, Hidden Figures. This demonstrated the success of African American females creating positive images of identity development as black women, practicing bicultural life strategies that enabled them to manage an all-white male culture. Racial identity theory illustrates a range from dissonance, resistance, and awareness conformity. Bicultural method of coping worked, but obviously would be stressful in balancing two cultures. Career counselors must understand that an African-American, for example, holds a position on the conformity range and how their career choices are defined by their value of the range and saliency of their racial/ethnic identity. I would like to think that today’s career counselors would help these same women be authentically themselves and garnered the celebrity at the time of the event, rather than 50 years later.


Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (2005). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2007). Vocational psychology and counseling: Career counseling and diversity. Baltimore: Author.

Ratts, M. J. & Santos, KA. (2012). Career counseling without borders: Moving beyond traditional career practices of helping. In D. Capuzzi & M. Stauffer (Eds.). Career counseling: Foundations perspectives and applications. (2nd ed., pp. 111-126). NY, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

United States Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics (July 5, 2019). Retrieved July 22, 2019 from

3. Classmate (C. Fri)

Multicultural and Diverse Clients

Clients will differ on many aspects, including their cultural backgrounds. A counselor must take into consideration a client’s cultural background, racial identity, and other possible diversities. Development theories and racial identity theories should be evaluated when working with a client that belongs to a minority group. Dr. Luzzo points out within his video this week that many early counseling theories were formed to evaluate, diagnose, and treat Christian, Caucasian boys as most counseling clients fit this profile. As time went on, there became more diverse clients so there began to be a need for diverse theories. He also states that assessing a client’s culture will be very helpful in determining careers that would work well with the client. Research has been done proving that any visible diversity differences between counselor and client could cause biases, prejudices, etc. These issues could be extremely detrimental to the therapeutic relationship that must be established to provide the client with success in their vocational counseling needs. To help to get around these potential issues, a counselor must be aware of his or her own cultural identity, as well as biases and prejudices, in order to face them head-on. Regardless of the client’s race, religion, or gender, each individual has their own “invisible” cultural identity that molds who they are as a person. Our job, as counselors, is to unveil the client’s cultural identity and use it to their advantage when assisting them in their vocational counseling needs (Laureate Education, Inc., 2007).

Development and Racial Identity Theories

When considering those clients that come from racial minority groups, a counselor must learn how to assist these groups as well. Some multicultural counseling perspectives may help when considering this client population. The Multicultural Counseling Competencies focus on three aspects: awareness of values, biases, and assumptions, understanding culturally-different client’s worldview, and development of intervention strategies and techniques that are culturally appropriate. The Advocacy Competencies focus on three types of intervention: client and student, school and community, and public arena. The client and student intervention focuses on empowerment and advocacy. The school and community intervention focuses on community collaboration and systems advocacy. The public arena intervention focuses on public information and social-political advocacy. Identity development models can help the counselor for assisting the client with their racial identity when utilizing career counseling services. Having a complete worldview can also enable a counselor to properly assist minority clients with their counseling needs, as diverse groups may have a different worldview than the “dominant” culture (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).


Capuzzi, D. & Stauffer, M. (2012). Career counseling: foundations, perspectives, and applications. New York: Routledge.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2007). Vocational psychology and counseling: Career counseling and diversity. Baltimore: Author.

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Required Resources

· Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2012). Career counseling: Foundations, perspectives, and applications. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

o Chapter 4, “Career Counseling Without Borders: Moving Beyond Traditional Career Practices of Helping”


· Video: Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2007). Vocational psychology and counseling: Career counseling and diversity. Baltimore: Author with Dr. Darrell Luzzo

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 17 minutes.

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio

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