Paraphrase answers that correspond with their question .

Directions: Paraphrase answers that correspond with their question make sure its not the same except for question 3 you can just copy that.

1.Identify the conditions that account for a warm climate at the equator.

a.The warm climate at the equator is caused by solar radiation, nd the tilt of the earth while orbiting the sun causes the poles to be angled towards the sun, while the sun heats the air and evaporates water at the equator. The rising air goes towards the poles, and with the curing pattern of winds, the doldrums (calm regions) are at the equator. Alternatively, topography and proximity to bodies of water can impact the climate.

2.Name two physical features that can affect rainfall.

.Two physical features that can affect rainfall are the way that air flows towards the poles and equator, with warm air rising and cooling to produce low pressure areas with high rainfalls. This can be caused by the spinning of the earth. Alternatively, topography can impact rainfall, since windward sides or leeward sides can alternate which regions have more rainfall than the other.

3.Make a list of the major biomes using Fig. 46.4 on p. 884 as your guide.

.Polar ice

a.Tundra

b.Taiga

c.Mountain Zone

d.Temperate Deciduous Forest

e.Temperate Rainforest

f.Tropical Deciduous Forest

g.Tropical seasonal Forest

h.Tropical Rainforest

i.Shrubland

j.Temperate Grassland

k.Savanna

l.Semidesert

m.Desert

4.Contrast the vegetation of the tropical rainforest with that of a temperate deciduous forest.

.While a temperate deciduous forest has moderate climates with somewhat high rainfall, the trees are oak, beech, sycamore, and maple with broad leaves. They lose those leaves in the fall and regrow them in the spring, and mosses, lichens, and ferns are beneath the shrub layer. The layers are stratified and deep tree roots help take up minerals and bring them into the forest. Contrastingly, tropical rainforests have more rainfall and nearly twelve hours of light a day, making them the richest biomes on earth (terrestrial). There are many more levels of life and the vegetation of the floor of the forest is very sparse because there is little sunlight making its way through the canopy. Smaller plants that thrive in the shade live in the understory and the canopy has tall trees with the most productive evel. Vegetation include evergreen trees, lianas, and many other species. There are also epiphytes that grow on other plants with their own roots to absorb water and minerals (like pineapples, orchids, and ferns). The soil at the bottom is not very nutrient rich and they are under much more pressure to be conserved than the vegetation of temperate deciduous forests.

5.Explain why there are more carnivores on the African savannah than in the tundra.

.There are more carnivores on the African savannah than the tundra because the savannah has the largest variety and number of large herbivores of all biomes. They feed on grasses and plant litter, and their population provides a prey source for carnivores like lions, hyenas, cheetahs, and leopards.

6.Provide a brief description of the biotic and abiotic factors within each biome.

.Arctic tundra: cold and dark most of year, short summers, long harsh winters, rain only 20 cm per year on average, few or no trees or animals

a.Coniferous forests: long, cold, snowy winters, warm, humid summers, cone bearing trees, can be temperate with lots of rainfall and rich soil, many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, squirrels, and lynxes typically live there

b.Temperate deciduous forests: moderate climate with high rainfall (75-150 cm year), seasons defined, growing season between 140-300 days, trees have broad leaves and lose leaves in fall and grow them in the spring; stratification with variety of habitats for animals

c.Tropical forests: weather always warm, rainfall plentiful with minimum of 190 cm year, 12 hours of sunlight day, richest land biomes on earth, 50% of species on earth live here, many levels of life (floor, understory, canopy)

d.Shrublands: dry summers and most rainfall comes in winter, shrubs shorter than trees with woody stems but no large trunk; roots can survive dry summers and chaparral is a type of shrubland without understory and is highly flammable

e.Grasslands: rainfall greater than 25 cm but doesn’t support trees, fertile soil, adapted to changing environment and can tolerate grazing, flooding, drought, some fire; includes temperate grasslands (bitterly cold winters and hot/dry summers) and savannahs (relatively cool dry season and hot rainy season with large expanses of grasses with deep root systems)

f.Deserts: hot days, lack of cloud cover, cold nights; winds lack moisture, annual rainfall less than 25 cm year, usually latitudes of around 30 degrees, cover 30% of earth’s surface, animals must adapt to live here like in the tundra (different adaptations though)

g.Wetlands:wet for at least part of the year, marshes continually inundated by water with rushes, reeds, or other grasses; swamps are dominated by woody plants or shrubs; bogs have acidic waters, peat deposits, and sphagnum moss

h.Lakes: bodies of freshwater with nutrients in them, characterized by different levels of nutrients

i.Coastal ecosystems: include estuaries and rocky shores; freshwater and saltwater may mix in estuaries; rocky shores are bombarded by sea as tides come in and out, including the intertidal zone

j.Oceans: saltwater, shallow waters have greatest concentration of organisms in seas; coral reefs have lots of animals and plants and are in shallow, warm tropical waters teeming with life; pelagic zones and mesopelagic zones (see question 8)

7.Identify the steps associated with an overturn.

.In the fall, as the epilimnion cools and warms in the spring, the overturn occurs. The upper epilimnion waters get cooler than the hypolimnion waters in the fall. The surface water sinks and the deep water rises. The layers mix in the fall, making the temperature uniform and the wind helps circulate the water so mixing happens. The oxygen and nutrients will become distributed. Then the winter happens and ice insultes the like, making sure the water below it does not cool further. Then, when the ice melts in the spring, the cooler water on top will sink below the warmer water, making the spring overturn, which mixes the layers of water until the temperature is uniform again, and the wind will help with the circulation once again. Solar radiation will then enable thermal stratification and the process will begin all over again.

8.Describe the zones of the open ocean.

.Epipelagic Zone: This zone does not have a lot inorganic nutrients of the shallow waters which means it does not contain as high of a concentration of phytoplankton as shallow ares do. In this zone there are many different varieties of whales. This Zone carries the most abundant amount of marine life in it compared to the other zones. This carries many photosynthesizers which become food for a gathering of zooplankton and a large variety of fish. Toothed sperm whales usually feed on the common squid and Baleen whales usually strain krill.

a.Mesopelagic Zone: Animals that thrive in this zone are carnivores and are acclimated to the absence of light. A variety of the marine life in the mesopelagic zone are mostly red colored, translucent, and luminescent. Some examples of marine life in this zone are shrimps, fishes, squids, hatchet and lantern fishes. A variety of these animals migrates to the surface of the ocean at night to feed.

b.Bathypelagic Zone: This zone is completely dark except for occasional flashes of bioluminescent light. In this zone, scavengers and carnivores are found. Usually odd-looking fishes with extended mouths and abdomens and tiny, round, and hollow-looking eyes graze on infrequent prey.

c.Abyssal Zone: There is intense pressure and it is extremely cold in the Abyssal Zone. In the zone live many invertebrates that feed off of debris that floats down from the zone above. Crinoids grow above the sea floor and sea urchins and sea cucumbers creep around the bottom of the ocean while tube worms dig in the mud.

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