· Counselors use Bronfenbrenners model most explicitly in their work with clients when they
|[removed]||a.||recognize the primary importance of genetic influences on behavior.|
|[removed]||b.||consider multiple levels of influence on the individuals and select interventions that are targeted to multiple levels.|
|[removed]||c.||pay close attention to the stage of development that characterizes the clients.|
|[removed]||d.||understand that clients’ developmental tasks must be met in each stage of development.|
2· Stage theories of development typically describe changes in behavior, cognition, or some other area of development that are ____________ different from each other at each of the various stages.
3· Using Eriksons developmental theory as a framework, which of the following statements is an accurate representation of his ideas?
|[removed]||a.||An individual cannot progress to a later stage unless the earlier stage has been resolved successfully and completely.|
|[removed]||b.||Successful progression through the stages of development depends upon effective resolution of the Oedipal crisis.|
|[removed]||c.||Successful resolution of a crisis at any stage depends upon having more positive than negative experiences in the psychosocial area of major concern.|
|[removed]||d.||Highly intelligent individuals can skip specific stages and make progress at a faster rate than other people.|
4· Dr. Jones encountered a problem with a new client in therapy. Using the model of reflective practice described in Chapter 1, what is the sequence of steps Dr. Jones should use in order to work with this client effectively?
|[removed]||a.||Reflect on what has worked best in his own personal experience and apply that knowledge to the client’s problem.|
|[removed]||b.||Reflect on well-established theories that fit the case; apply the theoretical knowledge to the individual’s case; and then test out new ways of thinking about the problem if theoretical knowledge does not suffice.|
|[removed]||c.||Apply experience-based knowledge first and then use theory-based knowledge as the next step.|
|[removed]||d.||First test out any method by subjecting it to rigorous scientific experimentation and then apply it for use with the client.|
5· Theories of development differ from opinion primarily because
|[removed]||a.||they provide a complete picture of development.|
|[removed]||b.||they have been proven to be true by their developers.|
|[removed]||c.||they have been based on scientific research.|
|[removed]||d.||they are more abstract than opinions about development.|