African schools grapples with huge disparities in education

At the dawn of independence, incoming African leaders were quick to prioritize education on their development agendas. Attaining universal primary education, they maintained, would help postindependence Africa lift itself out of abject poverty.

As governments began to build schools and post teachers even to the farthest corners of the continent, with help from religious organizations and other partners, children began to fill the classrooms and basic education was under way.

Africa’s current primary school enrolment rate is above 80% on average, with the continent recording some of the biggest increases in elementary school enrolment globally in the last few decades, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), which is tasked with coordinating international cooperation in education, science, culture and communication. More children in Africa are going to school than ever before.

Yet despite the successes in primary school enrolment, inequalities and inefficiencies remain in this critical sector.

According to the African Union (AU), the recent expansion in enrolments “masks huge disparities and system dysfunctionalities and inefficiencies” in education subsectors such as preprimary, technical, vocational and informal education, which are severely underdeveloped.

It is widely accepted that most of Africa’s education and training programs suffer from low-quality teaching and learning, as well as inequalities and exclusion at all levels. Even with a substantial increase in the number of children with access to basic education, a large number still remain out of school.

A newly released report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Income Inequality Trends in sub-Saharan Africa: Divergence, Determinants and Consequences, identifies the unequal distribution of essential facilities, such as schools, as one the drivers of wide income disparities.

Ayodele Odusola, the lead editor of the report and UNDP’s chief economist, makes the following point: “Quality education is key to social mobility and can thus help reduce poverty, although it may not necessarily reduce [income] inequality.”

To address education inequality, he says, governments must invest heavily in child and youth development through appropriate education and health policies and programmes.

Higher-quality education, he says, improves the distribution of skilled workers, and state authorities can use this increased supply to build a fairer society in which all people, rich or poor, have equal opportunities. As it is now, only the elites benefit from quality education.

“Wealthy leaders in Africa send their children to study in the best universities abroad, such as Harvard. After studies, they come back to rule their countries, while those from poor families who went to public schools would be lucky to get a job even in the public sector,” notes Mr. Odusola.

Another challenge facing policy makers and pedagogues is low secondary and tertiary enrolment. Angela Lusigi, one of the authors of the UNDP report, says that while Africa has made significant advances in closing the gap in primary-level enrolments, both secondary and tertiary enrolments lag behind. Only four out of every 100 children in Africa is expected to enter a graduate and postgraduate institution, compared to 36 out of 100 in Latin America and 14 out of 100 in South and West Asia.

“In fact, only 30 to 50% of secondary-school-aged children are attending school, while only 7 to 23% of tertiary-school-aged youth are enrolled. This varies by subregion, with the lowest levels being in Central and Eastern Africa and the highest enrolment levels in Southern and North Africa,” Ms. Lusigi, who is also the strategic advisor for UNDP Africa, told Africa Renewal.

According to Ms. Lusigi, many factors account for the low transition from primary to secondary and tertiary education. The first is limited household incomes, which limit children’s access to education. A lack of government investment to create equal access to education also plays a part.

“The big push that led to much higher primary enrolment in the African community was subsidized schooling financed by both public resources and development assistance,” she said. “This has not yet transitioned to providing free access to secondary- and tertiary-level education.”

Another barrier to advancing from primary to secondary education is the inability of national institutions in Africa to ensure equity across geographical and gender boundaries. Disabled children are particularly disadvantaged.

“Often in Africa, decisions to educate children are made within the context of discriminatory social institutions and cultural norms that may prevent young girls or boys from attending school,” says Ms. Lusigi.

Regarding gender equality in education, large gaps exist in access, learning achievement and advanced studies, most often at the expense of girls, although in some regions boys may be the ones at a disadvantage in the African Community.

UNESCO’s Institute for Statistics reports that more girls than boys remain out of school in sub-Saharan Africa, where a girl can expect to receive only about nine years of schooling while boys can expect 10 years (including some time spent repeating classes).

More girls than boys drop out of school before completing secondary or tertiary education in Africa. Globally, women account for two-thirds of the 750 million adults without basic literacy skills.

Then there is the additional challenge of African poorly resourced education systems, the difficulties ranging from the lack of basic school infrastructure to poor-quality instruction. According to the Learning Barometer of the Brookings Institution, a US-based think tank, up to 50% of the students in some countries are not learning effectively.

Results from regional assessments by the UN indicate “poor learning outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, despite upward trend in average learning achievements.” Many children who are currently in school will not learn enough to acquire the basic skills needed to lead successful and productive lives. Some will leave school without a basic grasp of reading and mathematics.


The drivers of inequality in education are many and complex, yet the response to these challenges revolves around simple and sound policies for inclusive growth, the eradication of poverty and exclusion, increased investment in education and human development, and good governance to ensure a fairer distribution of assets.

With an estimated 364 million Africans between the ages of 15 and 35, the continent has the world’s youngest population, which offers an immense opportunity for investing in the next generation of African leaders and entrepreneurs. Countries can start to build and upgrade education facilities and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all in the African community.

The AU, keeping in mind that the continent’s population will double in the next 25 years, is seeking through its Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016–2025 to expand access not just to quality education, but also to education that is relevant to the needs of the continent.

The AU Commission deputy chairperson, Thomas Kwesi Quartey, says governments must address the need for good education and appropriate skills training to stem rising unemployment.

African Institutions of higher learning, he says, need to review and diversify their systems of education and expand the level of skills to make themselves relevant to the demands of the labour


“Our institutions are churning out thousands of graduates each year, but these graduates cannot find jobs because the education systems are traditionally focused on preparing graduates for white-collar jobs, with little regard to the demands of the private sector, for innovation or entrepreneurship,” said Mr. Quartey during the opening of the European Union–Africa Business Forum in Brussels, Belgium, in June 2017.

He noted that if African youths are not adequately prepared for the job market, “Growth in technical fields that support industrialization, manufacturing and development in the value chains will remain stunted.” Inequality’s inclusion among the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 10: Reduced Inequalities) serves as an important reminder to leaders in Africa to take the issue seriously.

For a start, access to early childhood development programmes, especially for children from disadvantaged backgrounds, can help reduce inequality by ensuring that all children begin formal schooling with strong foundations.

The UNDP, through its new strategic plan (for 2018 through 2021), will work to deliver development solutions for diverse contexts and a range of development priorities, including poverty eradication, jobs and livelihoods, governance and institutional capacity and disaster preparedness and management.

Photo of an African School

Writing conclusions: how to end your paper

conclusionsAs you take on any academic writing task, you generally chance upon the subject of what to write. You choose what ought to be covered inside this subject and make up an estimated structure for your paper. A little yet vital question actually remains: how might I organize the presentation and finish of my paper?

For certain students, it appears simple to make up a couple of words to sum up your point. Be that as it may, a fine decision isn’t actually a summary. In this article, we will give a couple of tips on the best way to end your academic paper in the most suitable manner.

The power of an introduction and conclusion

Despite the fact that they are short, you ought not to underestimate the significance of these two segments. You generally need an exact and clear presentation, particularly if the theme is unpredictable or new to your readers. Conclusions, then again, ought not be a summarization of what has been said. This is the part that makes your last point and inspires readers to investigate more about your subject. Later to establishing a decent first connection, it is likewise imperative to state an incredible last word on the critical takeaways of this paper.

The most recognized mistakes we make while writing conclusions

To many, writing conclusions appears to be simple. All things considered, you don’t have to add any new information, argumentation, or investigation in it. Yet, this is an interesting point. As we have stated, a determination is not an outline. Here are the most recognized missteps we make while writing the last segment of a paper.

Summarizing the thesis statement of your paper

It happens when you don’t have an idea on what to write. We embed a thesis statement before breaking down it in the principal part of the paper. It is incapable to repeat your point in the conclusion section.conclusions

Summing up what has been already said

You can give a summary as a different sort of paper for readers who have no an ideal opportunity to continue through the argumentation you give in the paper. Yet, it isn’t what you need to place in conclusions. Accept that readers don’t need an outline, as they have perused the rest of the paper.

Scrutinizing your own opinion

This is one of the most terrible activities in your conclusion section. You’ve written this article to convince readers that your point on this topic. Regardless of whether you can’t be 100% right with your statement, present its strong points. Tell readers how your study applies to them.

Examining points not referenced in your essay

As opposed to repeating your statement, you might be enticed to intrigue readers for certain things you didn’t address in your paper. Its conclusions to be helpful as “a possibility for more research,” yet once more, it isn’t applicable to your point and its argumentation. In this way, attempt to protect the connection with the rest of your paper in your last section.

Step by step instructions to write conclusions that works

You may wonder about the things that make a decent conclusion of your paper. The point of conclusions is to combine your thoughts and clarify why your point is significant. Likewise, it is your opportunity to establish a positive connection about your point and inspire readers to investigate it further.

Sort out the manner in which your theme is relevant to the reader

In the event that you have written the whole paper on a point, it should be essential to others here and there. In your decision, write why individuals should think often about this subject. It can make their lives better or, in any event, it might push others to think toward another path.

Show how your statement associate with models

Rather than giving a summary of what you as of now have, call attention to how your thoughts have developed because of the discoveries introduced in your paper. Try not to dive into details or present any new data. Clarify the commitment you are making with this paper.

Propose an answer for the difficult you put in this article

In the event that you are bringing up an issue in your writing, recommend how you would tackle it. Try not to whine if something isn’t right with your subject. All things being equal, propose potential ways for development. It will add a lot of importance to your writing.

Notice how your subject can impact a more extensive territory of research

conclusionsYou definitely realize that readers care about the difficult you set forward in your article. The time has come to show how your subject impacts a circle. What’s more, there is the possibility of extra examination. Incorporate a couple of sentences about it into your decision.

Rather than afterword

It’s our chance to state a couple of definite words. Writing a conclusion for an academic paper might be harder than it appears. All things considered; you can generally make a decent last segment on the off chance that you care about your point. Try not to get irritated, passionate, or captivated as you write conclusions. All things considered, keep your point solid and be sure about future improvements in your subject.


Academic writing style

Academic writing is the ability to express and substantiate one’s thoughts through a short. Yet, convincing scientific text. It is one of the important aspects of successful education at the university and further research activities, including at the international level.

With the help of academic writing, scientific and educational communication between different countries has been carried out over the past few decades. Its principles are guided by the leading editors of the most competent scientific publications around the world, so everyone should master them, at least to help their path in climbing the career ladder in any science.

Academic writingEnglish-speaking countries today play a key role in the development of the academic writing system and its scientific and methodological base. This is a completely new discipline for Russian education, although the problems it poses is not new for our country. The development of scientific writing was carried out by specialists from various industries, including linguists, philologists, semiologists, sociopsychologists, and even representatives of professions engaged in information technology.

Writing genres

The developers of the academic writing system distinguish between primary (scientific article, dissertation, academic review, monograph, etc.) and secondary genres (description of a scientific project, thesis, abstract, scientific discussion, encyclopedic article, abstract).

In a scientific article, the author cites the results of his own research. Besides to facts, it contains logical reasoning and comprehension of the effective part.

  • The dissertation is prepared for obtaining a master’s qualification or other academic degree.
  • The review analyzes the scientific text and gives a critical assessment of the work.
  • The monograph devotes to one topic. Also, is set after the accumulation of a enough amount of heterogeneous information and scientific materials on the subject of research.
  • An abstract is a concise summary of any primary source (article, dissertation, abstract, etc.). A short transmission of its essence. She lists the issues addressed by topic. A description of the structure of the work is possible.
  • The abstract is similar in meaning to the presentation of the revised primary text. It conveys the information disclosed in the original source. May include more information, new data.
  • A scientific discussion intends to discuss scientific problems and search for their solutions. It begins with the advancement of the topic of discussion and voicing of oppositions (contradictions). After which it proceeds to a critical examination of existing points of view.

Besides, researchers must master another genre – scientific journalistic (popular science), used to publish an expert point of view in a wide public field.

All these genres differ in content, peculiarities of language, composition, functional-speech specifics. At the same time, they unite into one main feature – clarity, accuracy and uniqueness of expression of thoughts.

Features of the academic writing style

Academic writingWhen writing any text within the framework of academic writing, its peculiarities should take into account. So, a scientific text as a basic model of academic writing should have a simple structure, consisting of an introduction, a main part and a traditional conclusion.

  • The introductory part reveals the topic, introduces the reader to the course of the matter.
  • In the main part, the author refers to scientific research on the topic and presents his own vision of the problem under study.
  • In the conclusion, conclusions are drawn, further prospects in the issue under study outlines, forecasts are made.

When constructing sentences, using special terminology and professional abbreviations of terms, the author must understand for which audience he is writing. When reading, there should be no questions left, the topic should disclose and understandable.

The rules of grammar, punctuation and spelling must follow. This makes it easier to understand, eliminates the distortion of the meaning and ambiguity of what is said.

In the work, it is desirable to use citations and refer to the work of other scientists. This demonstrates the competence of the researcher, the breadth of his research and its completeness. Referring to other studies, their essence must disclose so that the reader understands what it is about and for what purpose the author gave a specific example.

In conclusion, it should one should note that everyone needs to master the scientific text and academic writing: students of higher educational institutions, graduate students, teachers, scientists and researchers who publish scientific articles.

If they intend to publish their work in scientific journals, they will have a better chance of receiving a positive response from the editorial board. This is best facilitated by an abstract prepared under the rules of academic writing.

For those interested in the voiced problem, a special training course “How to write an article for publication in publications indexed in Scopus and Web of Science?” Will be useful. It is interesting because one views academic writing from the point of view of the English language. As a bonus, all listeners will receive the first module for free. Upon completion of training, a certificate of completion is awarded.


How to write the masters thesis

With the masters thesis, also known as the master’s thesis, you conclude your master’s degree. It is an academic work that deals with an interdisciplinary topic.

the masters thesisWhat is a masters thesis?

The master’s thesis is a scientific piece of work that you write at the end of your master’s degree. It is also known as the master’s thesis.

When you pass your master’s thesis, you will receive the academic degree of the master’s.

During your master’s thesis, you will deal with an academically relevant topic and gain new knowledge through research.

The length of an average master’s thesis is 66 pages or 16,500 words, with a processing time of 22 weeks. As a rule, you will receive 20–30 ECTS points for your master’s thesis.

Difference to your bachelor thesis

Compared to your bachelor thesis, the requirements for your master thesis are much higher. Not only is the scope of the master’s thesis larger, but the objectives of the two final theses also differ.

Your master’s thesis’s central goal is to gain new knowledge and thereby contribute to current research.

Bachelor thesis and master thesis in comparison
bachelor thesis master thesis
target ·         Processing of a technically relevant topic.

·         Examination of specialist literature.

·         Analyze existing knowledge or generate new knowledge.

·         Independent and scientific further development of an interdisciplinary topic.

·         Gain new knowledge and contribute to current research.

length 40 pages or 10,000 words 66 pages or 16,500 words
Duration 11 weeks 22 weeks
ECTS points between 10 and 15 between 20 and 30

 The 4 phases of a master’s thesis

The processing of your master’s thesis is divided into four essential phases.

An overview of the phases of your master’s thesis
1. Preparation 2. Research phase
·         Look at examples

·         Choose a topic

·         find company if necessary

·         Create a schedule

·         Literature research

·         Choose methodology

·         Write an exposé

·         Create an outline

·         Finalize methodology, e.g., B.

    • survey
    • Expert interview
    • observation
    • Content analysis

·         Preparation of data collection

·         Collection of the data

·         evaluation of the data

3. writing phase 4. Follow-up
·         Choose how to cite

·         Develop the theoretical framework

·         Write methodology part

·         Present research results

·         Write a discussion

·         Write an introduction

·         Write a conclusion

·         Create bibliography

·         write an abstract if necessary

·         Sign the affidavit

·         write thanks if necessary

·         Editing of the master’s thesis

·         Check for plagiarism

·         Check layout

·         Printing & Binding

 Use examples of your master’s thesis correctly.

Master thesis examples can be helpful to get a first impression of what to expect.

As you look at examples, ask yourself the following questions:

  • How can I orient myself to the structure of the example?
  • How does the research question inspire me?
  • Were any interesting methods used?
  • What is the writing style like at work?the masters thesis

Find the perfect topic.

To find the perfect topic for your master’s thesis, you should look for a research gap that you can fill with the findings of your master’s thesis.

Use our roadmap to find the right topic for you. Choose between a scientific or personal approach.

Convince with the synopsis of your master’s thesis

Your master’s thesis’s synopsis is about 5–10 pages long and serves as a framework.

It helps you maintain an overview and serves as a basis for your supervisor or a company.

The synopsis begins with a cover sheet, introduction, and objective. Besides, you will present the research status and concept. Finally, you add a preliminary outline, a schedule for your master’s thesis, and a bibliography.

Create a schedule 

The average processing time for a master’s thesis is 22 weeks or around 5.5 months.

Use our schedule template for your master’s thesis to plan the individual phases and to start your master’s thesis well prepared.

When planning your masters thesis, pay attention to:

  • Be realistic and honest.
  • Plan backward from the submission date and include buffers.
  • Don’t forget to schedule other appointments, such as part-time jobs or vacations.

Structure of your masters thesis

Your master’s thesis consists of an introduction, the main part, and a conclusion.

The main part is divided into the theoretical framework and the empirical part, in which methods are used.

Besides, there is formal content such as the cover page of your master’s thesis, directories, or attachments.

The structure of your master’s thesis is roughly based on the following structure. Click on the respective chapters to find out more.

Structure of your masters thesis
cover sheet The cover sheet contains information about your master’s thesis and your university, as well as your data.

Use our cover sheet templates to create the cover sheet for your master’s thesis.

Abstract In the abstract of your master’s thesis, you describe your master’s thesis’s central points.

The abstract is max. 1 page long.

thanksgiving In thanks for your master’s thesis, you can thank the people who helped you prepare the master’s thesis.

It is not a necessary part of your master’s thesis.

Table of Contents The table of contents lists all elements of your master’s thesis and gives an overview of your master’s thesis structure.
List of figures and tables Here you list all the figures and tables that you used in your master’s thesis.

You can easily create a list of figures and tables in Word.

List of abbreviations Make an alphabetical list of all abbreviations that you use in your master’s thesis.
introduction In the introduction to your master’s thesis, you describe your motivation, the objectives, and the structure of your master’s thesis.

Write your introduction in the present tense. Background information can be written in the past or perfect tense.

Bulk The main part is the largest part of your master’s thesis and is divided into:

1.       Theoretical Basics

2.       Presentation of the literature and theories to create a research base.

3.       Methodology

4.       Gaining new knowledge through methods such as surveys, interviews, observation, etc.

5.       Results

6.       Presentation of the research results.

7.       Discussion

8.       Interpret the results of your methods by linking them to the theory.

Conclusion Summarize the most important results of your master’s thesis and answer your research question (s).
bibliography List all sources used in your bibliography. Use a consistent citation style for this.
attachment Include additional information, such as interview transcripts or tables.
Statutory declaration Affirm in your affidavit that you wrote your master’s thesis yourself.

Find the right methodology for your masters thesis.

A central part of your master’s thesis is the use of research methods.

Depending on the research question, quantitative or qualitative approaches are suitable.

Qualitatively Quantitatively
·         Expert interviews

·         Qualitative content analysis

·         Case study

·         Group discussion

·         Literary work

·         survey

·         Systematic observation

·         experiment

Also, you have to determine whether you want to argue inductively.

Finally, ensure that you have met the quality criteria of validity, reliability, and objectivity in your research.

The defense of your masters thesis

After you have submitted your master’s thesis, you may have to present your results to an examination committee. This is called the defense or colloquium of your master’s thesis.

It consists of a presentation of the master’s thesis and a discussion of the results. Prepare yourself adequately for this final exam.


How to write an autobiography: tips to help create a resume

autobiographyThe autobiography is a body of text that presents the facts from a person’s life. Compared to a biography, every person has to write an autobiography independently. The other person can create the biography.

Describing yourself and your own life is a complicated task. What should you start with, and what form of writing should you choose? Does it have to be a novel or just a journalistic text?

When a student writes an autobiography, it is similar to a resume. It can be like that since similar data are reported. The autobiography should be drawn up in a freestyle. In addition to the author’s data, it often includes evaluating events and facts from real life.

As a rule, all celebrities write their autobiographies independently or with the help of ghostwriters. You want to describe the important facts, experiences, and impressions. They strive to pique the audience’s interest in themselves. This work is very often called a memoir.

Why and when do you create an autobiography?

Some say that even students should praise themselves for getting a good study place or a part-time job. It is clear that when applying, one must not be silent about one’s advantages and profits.

This text is not mandatory in the cover letter, but it can still help achieve its application goals. The purpose of the student can be different:

  • Education;
  • Practice;
  • Study holidays;
  • Scholarship;
  • Participation in the project;
  • Participation in a student association;
  • Part-time job.

Before writing, the student should collect important life facts. It means taking some notes about the essential stages of life. You can collect all certificates and documents and describe your professional experience. It would help if you also remember your character and beneficial traits.

How can you describe yourself qualitatively without a personal conversation and tell the most important things about yourself? The autobiography helps very well with this. We can say that this freestyle text can better portray human life and benefits than cover letters.

This text should be reader-friendly and easy to understand. No grammatical and spelling mistakes are allowed. The author should choose an appropriate form and content structure for the autobiography.

It is also recommended not to use graphic elements. These can reduce the reader’s attention.

It is advisable to use the adaptive patterns of the autobiography. We can find such a template on the internet on certain websites. It would be even more effective to hand over the writing to the professionals if you can’t write your autobiography.

Correct structure: how do you structure the autobiography correctly?

When it comes to student autobiography, one shouldn’t create an autobiographical novel. The length of such text is about 1 – 1.5 pages. It is therefore important to only present the important information in the text. Usually, one uses a journalistic style or style of public transport for this.

One should avoid colloquial language here. This is not a letter to a friend. This is legitimate communication to appropriate institutions.

Therefore, it is important to think carefully about the structure of autobiography writing. In other words, one should answer the question: what should I say about myself? There are the facts that should be explained:

  • First and last name of the author;
  • Age and contact details;
  • Family condition;
  • Education (time and space, course, subject area);
  • Professional experience;
  • Participation in the work of clubs and organizations;
  • Participation in projects and scholarship programs;
  • Further education;
  • Study stays;
  • Priorities and goals in life;
  • Hobbies;
  • Positive traits and winning.

In addition to listing these facts, the student should also provide explanations relating to these facts. It is always interesting why a person has chosen a certain profession or goals are a priority for him.

You can use epithets in the autobiography to describe your feelings and impressions.

autobiographyAutobiography as a written assignment during studies

Future historians and philologists write many papers during their studies. These are the essays, term papers, technical papers, as well as presentations and essays. These are dedicated to various technical problems.

One often creates the biographies of celebrities, writers, artists, and scientists to train oneself, collect the facts, and work on them.

You can also create your autobiography. It would be best if you started with shape and structure. The student can roughly divide this text into four parts:

  1. Introduction;
  2. Technical information;
  3. Personal information;
  4. Final part.

A student’s life path is not that long. However, it is full of various events. Therefore, it is possible to make a meaningful and interesting autobiography.

A good autobiography takes time. The student should collect all the essential information and combine it logically in the text. It doesn’t have to be individual theses. All facts are combined in a certain order according to a fixed structure.


Doctoral thesis in nursing management

doctoral thesisWould you like to advance your career in nursing management?

We support you with your doctoral thesis in nursing management!

Society is aging much faster than it used to be. Improvements in medical treatment and living conditions mean that people are getting older. Because of the increasing need for qualified nursing staff, the general view of nursing has changed. Nursing professions are typically highly regarded and are becoming increasingly academic.

Why do a PhD in nursing management?

A doctorate in nursing management is ideal for graduates in nursing science, nursing management, or nursing economics. These courses are mainly offered at universities of applied sciences. Some of which are independently sponsored and are often recognized by the state and the church. As a rule, the course ends with a bachelor’s or master’s degree, but there is the option of switching to a doctoral degree or doing a doctorate freely after completing the master’s degree.

How can our ghostwriters help you?

If you have decided on a doctoral thesis in nursing management, you will face new scientific challenges. In contrast to the seminar, bachelor, and master theses, a dissertation requires scientific work at the highest level. As a doctoral student, you should prove that you can independently write a scientifically demanding doctoral thesis and work on fundamental and practical problems from the health sector. In the sub-disciplines of practice, pedagogy, and management, you combine basic theoretical knowledge with practical aspects and develop a solution approach for specific problems. Not only should you generate new scientific findings with your dissertation topic, A linguistically correct and technically high-quality execution of your research results is also expected. In particular, an extra-occupational doctorate creates a lot of additional pressure because you have to be motivated for your research after a long day at work or the weekend. This is where we come in. Because even if you are completing a doctoral program that accompanies your dissertation in a structured manner and prepares you to step by step to prepare your doctoral thesis, there are some tasks that we can relieve you.

Our ghostwriters have both an academic and a professional career behind them and are familiar with theoretical knowledge development and practice-related processes and can give you valuable impulses to prepare your dissertation. From narrowing down the topic to submitting it, we accompany you and are at your side if you have any questions or problems. After we have narrowed the topic down to a central question and you, we create an initial structure based on working hypotheses, which we also work out with you. Then we begin an extensive literature search and sift through or excerpt the relevant literature for you while you concentrate on your course of study, your everyday work, or your research. Some topics Relevant to care management may include empirical research that you do in archives or care facilities. Our ghostwriters will also be happy to support you in preparing and evaluating this task. Our doctoral thesis supervision also includes various paperwork, professional editing, and formatting according to the specifications of the chair.

Tips for a successful doctorate in nursing management

Before starting your doctoral thesis in nursing management, you should decide which type of doctorate is suitable for you. With an accompanied dissertation as part of a doctoral program at a university of applied sciences, you will receive important knowledge from the departments relevant to your work as well as intensive supervision of your doctorate. However, these courses are often not free of tuition fees. We recommend that you find out about costs and course content in advance at the universities concerned. If you want to do a free doctorate instead, it makes sense to start looking for a doctoral supervisor at an early stage. Have an intensive preliminary talk with your mentor and discuss the content requirements and the scope of the dissertation in detail. If you don’t have your idea for a doctoral thesis topic, you can work with one of our ghostwriters to develop a topic proposal and then present it to your mentor. It is also important that you choose a topic that is personally relevant or interesting for you.

Study of nursing management

The degree in care management prepares you for a career as a care service manager. Here you can find information about studying!

The care sector has seen major changes in recent years. As health and care have become more relevant to society, the care professions have become more recognized and become increasingly academic.

doctoral thesisRequirements for the nursing management degree

Due to the increasing need for qualified nursing staff, the nursing science department’s courses are enjoying great popularity. The nursing management course, a sub-area of ​​nursing science, provides advanced knowledge in the area of ​​nursing facility management of clinics, nursing homes, or outpatient services. Often, the nursing management courses, which are mainly offered at practice-oriented universities of applied sciences, are aimed at trained nursing staff who want to continue their professional development and strive for a leading position in nursing. The transition from the nursing science course is just as possible as entry without a completed professional training. In this case, however, the universities usually require at least an internship in the nursing area.

Structure and content of the course

In addition to the classic full-time course at the university, dual or part-time courses are also offered in  ​​nursing management. In this way, students can continue their education and qualify for managerial positions while at the same time remaining in the profession. In addition to basic nursing subjects, the timetable also includes courses in personnel management, organizational management, sociology, psychology, law, and business administration. Thanks to its interdisciplinary orientation, the course provides comprehensive education and communicative and psychosocial skills. As a rule, various internships and often a practical semester are an integral part of the course. During this period, under the guidance of experienced nurses, the students apply the knowledge they have acquired during their studies in practice and already take on tasks independently that correspond to their training level. The course ends with a bachelor’s, master’s, or diploma degree and generally does not last longer than four to five years, even part-time.


What are essay writing rules?

essay writingThe most important “secret” of the essay is the absence of any hard and fast rules. But it’s good if you come up with a headline and try to keep the typical structure of the text, providing an introduction, body and conclusion. In this case, it is not necessary to make an introduction and conclusion according to some formal rules. An essay is not an abstract or even an article, and therefore does not need such typical phrases as:

  • “This article is about …”
  • “I want to tell the reader about …”
  • “The purpose of this work is …”
  • “I came to such conclusions as: …”

There is no need for “service” paragraphs, phrases, words that do not carry any meaning. A clear structure is not needed here either.

Unfortunately for some students and fortunately for future readers, the essay writing still should not be an incoherent set of words and phrases. The lack of clear rules for writing an essay and complete freedom of action does not give you carte blanche for a bad, illegible text full of factual, logical and spelling errors. Therefore, it is better to stick to some kind of framework.

A few guidelines for a novice essayist or essay writing rules:

  1. Remember the topic and purpose of the essay. Your text should correspond to the title and the topic you are raising. Do not spread your mind along the tree if your idea does not require it. Overly detailed descriptions, even artistic ones, can do you a disservice.
  2. Check with your teacher or employer about the approximate scope of work and stick to it. Do not think that your zeal will be appreciated if you write a two-volume book on the topic “How I Came to the Profession of a Doctor” or “What Higher Education Means to Me.” Of course, if you are the future Chuck Palahniuk or Nietzsche’s heir and know how to lure the reader with ideas or narration, you can take the risk and write 20-30 pages instead of two or three. Do you consider yourself a talented author? Come to the library, open any essay by a famous writer or philosopher, read. Didn’t fall asleep on the first page? Compare your style to that of the author. Yours frankly does not pull? Keep it short– teachers are people too! Two or three pages are usually sufficient to fully cover the topic.
  3. Divide the text into paragraphs, dilute with subheadings, if necessary, use visual formatting tools. The time to read canvases of text has passed since the century before last. Nobody is interested in your ability to keep a thought in a paragraph of a whole page – they simply won’t finish reading such a paragraph. Make your text reader-friendly. Even if this reader is alone.
  4. Skip the lengthy introduction. You are writing for a prepared reader (probably just the one who asked you for an essay topic). You do not need to talk about the relevance of the problem, the importance of solving it for a modern person, you do not need to list the goals and objectives of the essay, as you did in your abstract or coursework. Start right away. The same goes for the conclusion. Don’t waste the reader’s time.essay writing
  5. There should be structure in your text. At least some. The introduction and conclusion should be the default, even if they are one or two lines. It is also important to structure the main part. Decide where you present the problem, where you argue or describe it. The problem and its argumentation must be in one form or another. You can formulate the problem both in the introduction and in the conclusion. Or in the middle of the text. The main thing is to maintain logic and structure.
  6. Avoid water. There is water “technical” and semantic. All words-parasites, an abundance of introductory phrases and words – in a word, everything that makes the text difficult to read is called “technical”. Semantic water – everything that does not make sense, does not correspond to the set topic and is generally not required in the text. It can be difficult to “squeeze out” the text, so write immediately on the topic.
  7. Don’t write by hand. Of course, anything can happen. You may be asked to draft a short essay writing at a job interview or during a couple. In such a situation, there is nowhere to go – you will have to take a blank sheet of paper and practice calligraphy. If you can write your essay at home, do not submit your handwritten text. Excuses like “I don’t have a computer” won’t work. 90% of students have a laptop or at least a tablet (and you can write something on a tablet too). If you really come from the provinces, hold in your hands an old Nokia instead of Android and are used to writing essays by hand since school, there is still a way out. Give the manuscript to the computer owner – for a small fee, your text will be reprinted. You can borrow a laptop yourself from a friend or go to the nearest internet café. No money no time? Ask to print the essay at the dean’s office or at the department – a poor student with a sad look and penniless will be helped.
  8. Use a graphics editor and spell checker. Word is every student’s friend. Indent, highlight headings, set the line spacing to make the text readable. Make sure your essay is a pleasure to readWell, pay attention to the spelling and punctuation check. As far as punctuation is concerned, Word is not always the right helper, and some grammatical mistakes can be made even with auto check. Therefore, before handing in an essay, give it to a literate person to read it. You can be a fellow student; you can be a professional proofreader or editor. You can use the “Spelling”.
  9. Reread the text before submitting. We’ll talk about how to “test” a finished essay and what to check later. Until then, at least remove all typos and misprints. Typos spoil the text and the impression of it. Some teachers are ready to forgive even a sea of ​​mistakes (yes, students do not always have perfect literacy), but he will never forgive the lack of attention to the text, which is precisely characterized by an abundance of typos.

An essay is not an abstract or even an article, and therefore does not need such typical phrases as: At least if you don’t want to order essays from professionals.


Approach to writing an essay and a term paper

essayAll students have to write creative educational work: essay, abstracts, term papers and thesis. Of course, such events cause concern and doubts. For the most part they are associated not with the lack of confidence of students in their own knowledge. But with the excessive regulation of this component of the educational process. Besides, the pickiness of teachers and a lack of time for revisions.

It is a well-known fact that if students are asked to prepare a report or an essay on a topic that is of interest to them, they will take up work, even if the result does not promise a positive assessment in the discipline. Even careless students will take the opportunity to express their thoughts in a free form and impress the audience. But when they are forced to write a term paper or thesis, which is a form of control and attestation, students perceive this turn of events as a problem.

Not all students order writing of study papers from third-party organizations or teachers. Thus, we want to provide some tips for those who are going to write essays, term papers and theses themselves.

Essay theme selection

Half of the essay writing success depends on the choice of the topic, not only in writing, but also in defense. If a topic seems simple or interesting, it doesn’t mean that it will be easy. So, it is advisable to consult with the lead teacher what he can tell and why. You can also ask him what he thinks about the topic of your choice. How much it suits your abilities and how available the literature on this issue is. The teacher will suggest a profitable option, and for himself he will note that you write the work yourself and reckon with his authority.

And the main thing here is not to delay choosing a topic. The most profitable of them are sorted out immediately, and those who are late get the most tricky and boring ones.

Essay planning

The plan should reflect the sequence of presentation of the material and the construction of the author’s judgments. Off-topic questions should not be reflected in the plan. Yet, even the most obvious and logical plan can lead to external imbalance. There is a formal need that the structural units of work (sections, subsections, paragraphs) should be of equal size. In practice, this does not work out, because one question on the research topic is unambiguous and does not need deep understanding. Second is very controversial and problematic, containing many exceptions and peculiarities. So, it can be disclosed only by increasing the volume of a specific part of the work.

In this regard, based on the available literature, it makes sense to estimate in advance what sections and subsections should turn out so as not to violate the proportions of the work, and only then approve the plan with the scientific advisor.

essayTime planning

Each student has his own ability to work. Some can give a job in a week; some are not even six months. In order not to force yourself to perform work in an emergency mode, it is enough to make it a rule to write one page a day. Three months will be enough for a diploma, and a month for a coursework. You will not even notice how to complete all the work, and you will not waste precious personal time.

Interaction with the scientific advisor

Remind as often as possible that you are working. Seek advice even when everything is clear to you. Of course, this applies to meticulous and strict teachers: they will take into account that their opinion is important to you, and they will be more lenient when reviewing the work and defending. “Well, how can there be a bad work, which was written under my vigilant guidance?”


A thing that discourages any craving for creative search and does not represent scientific value. Many GOSTs regulate the order of writing scientific papers, abbreviations, bibliographic lists, references, placement of figures and a host of other details.

Of course, you must follow them, if only you ask the question of how important they are. So, it is better to be silent, and to fulfill only those requirements for registration that the university itself formulated in its methodological instructions. And if there is something missing, then you should not turn to GOST, but rather do it at your own discretion.

It is important to consider that it is better to adhere to the design requirements from the very first page of the work. Otherwise, later, a good text, written in one breath. But without observing the rules of paper design, it will be very difficult to bring them into line with them.


The structure of a scientific article review

article reviewIt is not always possible for a young writer to publish his article review in a serious publication. As a rule, their editors are very scrupulous about the quality of the material that claims to be printed. They will consider work from young professionals only if there is a response. The same happens with methodological developments, practical recommendations drawn up by graduate students. What should be the structure of a review of an article to qualify for approval for publication or implementation?

Who writes article review and why?

This assignment is assigned to senior researchers or supervisors of the author. The main thing is that it was a scientific, aim point of view, as well as a clear assessment of the work. Thus, a conclusion is given about whether the article is suitable for publication. It is important that the structure of the review of the article is respected. This will allow you to see the main points without delving into a long reading.

Article review can be written on the following types of work:

  • Diploma projects, Ph.D., etc.
  • Science articles;
  • Research in the framework of large scientific projects;
  • Practical and methodological recommendations for students or learners;
  • Popular science publications for the respective editions.

The expert’s assessment allows you to determine how these publications correspond to reality. Its practical or scientific value, etc. To simplify the work of an editor or a methodological commission, a review should draw up according to a certain plan.

How to write an article review correctly?

First of all, it is important to remember about objectivity. The reviewer is obliged to read the text, to make an expert impression about it. After reading the materials, he draws up a review. In general, the structure of an article review looks like this:

  • Heading information. The title of the work, information about the author, his academic degree, position, etc.;
  • Description of the problematic issue, which the article covers. These data are given shortly;
  • Assessment of the urgency of the problem. To what extent the topics raised in the text need consider it for this period, the expediency of analyzing the problem in principle;
  • Key theses, important ideas voiced by the author. It is important to highlight the most significant points that relate to the research, as well as the solution of the problem;

article reviewInformation about the reviewer himself, including position, academic degree, titles, etc.

Writing an article review is always a responsibility, since not only the reputation of a publication. Also, institution, author or critic depends on the correct description. An article can influence the formation of a majority opinion, especially if it plans to be published in a reputable publication. If the supervisor has difficulties with writing or there is a banal lack of time, you can find a way out. For example, writing a review about a scientific article can delegate to a bet or ordered. For Sample Click Here

Common essay writing mistakes

essayLet’s follow the example of Gregory Oster and give some bad advice for aspiring essay writers. And at the same time, we will analyze the typical mistakes of the authors.

More lyrics!

The lyrics capture the reader. It will be very interesting for him to know how you came to life, how beautiful the sunset is in your small homeland, how great it is that you came to the Golden-domed, how you enjoyed the ringing of bells before taking up the pen. More old epithets, more metaphors and comparisons – this will surely be appreciated. If they figure it out.

The bigger the intro, the better

Be sure to tell the reader about your life, about who your parents and grandparents were, about what pushed you to the topic of the essay. The introduction, which takes half a text, will certainly intrigue the reader.

Don’t be specific. Common words are your everything!

And in general, you need more water and stamps. Talk about how important it is that you went to study specifically as a teacher, translator, engineer, manager, in what wonderful place your university, office or city is located, how great it is if wars end all over the world. Are they being asked to write about what you would like to change in your university? Be sure to talk about teacher training and salary increases, new renovations or deepening of the curriculum. Do not give any specific names or facts.

More facts!

Don’t know how to make an elephant out of a pug? Go from the opposite – fill your essay with facts. Surnames, dates, names of studies, their results, city and world news – everything will work. Your reader will certainly be amazed at your erudition and ability to work with information. Keep your conclusions short – you are writing for academics who themselves are able to find logic and summarize.

essayThe longer the essay sentences, the smarter the author looks

Remember the classics and their half page sentences? After all, you can do that too – everyone went through the syntax at school, and after a little practice it is quite easy to use participial and adverbial phrases. Use as many smart and simply long words as possible, build large and wordy sentences. This will make you very smart in the eyes of the reader. The reader will simply be scared after the first paragraph and will close your essay, disappointed in their own intelligence.

Never, under any circumstances on an essay, reread your text.

You didn’t write for yourself, but for others, so let these others read your essay and admire your talent. It doesn’t matter how many “fleas” the reader will catch in your text, and how logical the presentation seems to him. You are a talent with no need for proofreading and editing. And the point.

Follow these tips and you will have the option to compose the most “splendid” essay. Maybe they will even be kept as a token.

You do not want?

Write by the rules or order an essay from the pros. Urgent Nursing Help