Digital Study Guide SCI 228 Nutrition, Health, & Wellness
Amy M. Schwartz
What is nutrition?
Is a new science that studies the effects of food on our bodies. Nutrition is how we consume, digest, metabolize, and store food.
When we lack nutrients, we can affect our health.
In the early mid 1700s it was discovered that the lack of vitamin C was the cause of scurvy.
A substance from food that provides nourishment essential for growth and life functions.
What are nutrients?
• fats and oils (two types of lipids)
What are calories?
Calories measure the potential for energy from the food consumed.
1 Gram of Carbohydrates = 4 Calories
1 Gram of Protein = 4 Calories
1 Gram of Fat =9 Calories
1 Gram of Alcohol = 7 Calories
Determining the Calories in a meal:
For dinner Amy has 122g of carbohydrates, 20 g of protein, 9g of fat in her daily food diary. Amy has already consumed 475 calories during lunch and breakfast. Amy is trying to keep to a calorie count of 1200 daily. Would Amy be able to add 5g of alcohol at dinner and keep her caloric daily goal?
Determining the Calories in a meal, cont.
How much Amy’s calorie content so far for the day?
Calories from lunch & breakfast: 475
Calories from dinner:
(122*4)+(20*4)+(9*9) = 649
Calories for day so far:
Remaining calories for day available:
1200-1124 = 76
5g of alcohol = 5*7= 35 calories
YES, Amy would be able to add the 5g of alcohol and remain in caloric daily goal.
Illness transported by food & water by an infectious agent, poison, or a protein causing an immune reaction.
Microbes that Contaminate Food
Bacteria (most common is Campylobacter jejuni)
Viruses – Hep A
Parasites – Helminths & Giardia
Fungi – mold (usually visible and avoidable)
Prions – self replicating protein
Two Primary types of toxins associated with food-borne illness:
Neurotoxins: toxin that targets the nervous system cells
Enterotoxins: toxin that targets the gastrointestinal tract cells
One of three macronutrients consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Carbohydrates are considered sugar and are water-soluble.
Glucose – most abundant sugar molecule and is a monosaccharide
Monosaccharide – any sugar that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar – one sugar molecule
Examples: Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Photosynthesis – plants use sunlight to perform a chemical reaction which combines carbon & water into glucose
Disaccharide – carbohydrate that consists of two sugar molecules joined
Examples: Lactose, Maltose, and sucrose
Benefits of Regular Physical Activity
Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Reduce Risk of Cancer
Improve Bone Mass
Improve Weight Control
Improved Mental Health & Stress Management
Longer Life Span